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Leadership and empowerment

Background Information: Leadership and Empowerment

Implementers of innovation and technical change are frequently task focused. It is their responsibility to get the job done! However, many people find that they can not do it all by themselves. It may come as quite a shock to some that they can not stay involved fully in all operational aspects of the project.

Once they adjust to this, however, they begin to realise that if they want to get things done, they need to be able to influence their bosses, peers, subordinates, suppliers, customers, etc. Therefore, a major focus of the implementer of innovation and technical change is how to motivate, to energise and to activate others as individuals or in groups.

The ultimate paradox of social leadership and social power is that to be an effective leader, one must turn all of their so-called followers into leaders. In this way, processes such as relationships and the issues of leadership and empowerment become important.  Each of these issues is discussed in more detail below and can be accessed by scrolling down the page:

  • Leadership
  • Empowerment
    coaching and counselling
    oral persuasion and motivation
    powerful people skills

There are four historical perspectives of leadership that should be considered: the trait perspective, the behavioural perspective, the contingency perspective and the transformational perspective. We will consider each in turn.

Trait perspective
One perspective on leadership is that leaders are born, not made. Early studies looked at leadership as a collection of personality and character traits. The basic assumption is that the great woman/man makes a great leader. While very few seem now to be convinced that inherent personality traits are the sole determinants of leadership capability and success, research has been able to identify several constellations of personal variables that seem to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful leaders.

Stogdill's now classic (1974) review of hundreds of trait studies revealed that the following are five important distinguishing factors:

  1. Capacity. The ability to problem-solve and make judgements based upon traits such as intelligence, alertness, verbal ability and originality.

  2. Achievement. The ability to achieve more academically and athletically.

  3. Responsibility. The characteristics of dependability, initiative, persistence and self-confidence.

  4. Participation. The ability to be involved, to be active, sociable, adaptable and cooperative.

  5. Status. More effective leaders have higher socio-economic and social status.

It should be remembered that this research is not saying that because you have higher status, you will be a better leader. It is saying that these traits are associated with successful leaders.

Behavioural perspective
A behavioural perspective on leadership focuses not on what a leader is, as the trait approach does, it focuses on what a leader does. Two classic series of leadership studies, done primarily in the 1950's and 1960's at the Universities of Ohio State and Michigan, have lead to the fundamental distinction between task-oriented and person-oriented leadership behaviour. It seems clear that successful leadership involves both (1) attention to the task and getting the job done, while also (2) attending to people and social processes.  A task focus is necessary if a group is going to stay on track and achieve its goals. One aspect of leadership behaviour, therefore, must concentrate on defining roles, providing structures, directing activities, communicating information, scheduling, etc. It is critical that leaders attend to the content of decisions and tasks at hand. These types of activities, however, are all too frequently the sole focus of the leader and the group.  The second factor these studies highlighted, of equal importance, relates to consideration of peoples' feelings and the building of mutual trust and respect for people's ideas and attitudes. It is also concerned with how the group goes about achieving what it needs to achieve. For example, the content of this Background Information is leadership. As above, we must be concerned with getting our content correct and we also need to structure that information in a way that makes it accessible. I have chosen to pass this information on in the form of a hyper-text manual. I could have provided the same content to you via a series of lectures, via discussion groups, or via video or audio tapes. In other words, there are a number of processes to choose from that all could have conveyed the same content. In this way, good leaders attend not only to the content and task, but also to the process of how to approach that task and achieve that goal.

Contingency perspective
Although the approaches to leadership discussed above do provide a certain level of knowledge and insight into leadership, they both suffer from a similar problem. They do not account for the fact that what may be considered good leadership under one set of circumstances, may not be considered so under other conditions. For example, although as a leader I may value participation and discussion and want to involve every one in decision-making, if the room is on fire, it would very likely not be a good time for a committee meeting to discuss evacuation procedures. We may, in this case, all be best served by one individual taking command calmly and organising people to evacuate the premises quickly and efficiently. If this autocratic style hurts certain people's feelings in the process, most independent observers would say that is a small price to pay for efficient evacuation and ultimate survival.

It is in this spirit of "it depends" that contingency perspectives of leadership are considered. A basic premise of a contingency approach is that behaviour is a function of both the person and the situation. That is, people behave they way they do (e.g., dress and act a certain way) because of both their personality and the situation. I might wear a suit to a business meeting because the situation calls for it, but I wear a certain tie or spend twice as much money on the suit compared to another, because of my personality. Similarly, a contingency perspective on leadership suggests that the most appropriate leadership behaviour will depend on both the individuals involved and the situation.

It is suggested, therefore, that there is no one right or best leadership style. The right or best answer is, "It depends". The set of factors upon which "it depends" are called contingencies. In other words, the best leadership behaviours are determined contingent upon a set of circumstances regarding the people involved and the situation.  For more information on this topic, go to contingent decision-making.

Transformational perspective
Another, more recently distinguished idea, is between transactional  and transformational leadership.  transactional leaders attempt to satisfy the current needs of followers by focusing their attention on tasks and interpersonal exchanges.  Transformational leaders, on the other hand, attempt to stimulate followers and promote dramatic changes in individuals, groups and organisations (Burns, 1978). This distinction does not substitute for the other conceptualisations discussed above. It appears to go beyond them.

One critical difference between transactional and transformational leadership is in regards to performance. It has been suggested that transactional leadership provides the basis for expected levels of performance, while transformational leadership builds upon that base resulting in performance beyond expectations (Bass, 1985). According to Yammarino, Spangler and Bass (1993), transformational leaders "motivate subordinates to do more than originally expected. They raise the consciousness of subordinates about the importance and value of designated outcomes and ways of reaching them and, in turn, get subordinates to transcend their own immediate self-interests for the sake of the mission and vision of the organisation. Subordinates' confidence levels are raised and their needs are expanded" (p 85).

This increased motivation is linked to three factors of transformational leadership:

  1. Transformational leaders are more charismatic and inspiring in the eyes of their followers. They inspire commitment, instil a vision and excite people. They are well trusted and their followers feel confidence in them.

  2. Transformational leaders give individual consideration. They pay attention to individual differences in subordinates' needs for growth and development. They coach, mentor and assign tasks that not only satisfy immediate needs, but stretch people's capabilities in an effort toward improvement. They also link the individual's current needs to the organisation's mission.

  3. Transformational leaders provide intellectual stimulation. They raise peoples' awareness of issues and problems. They help people become aware of their own thoughts, imagination, beliefs and values. It is through intellectual stimulation that transformational leaders facilitate the generation of new methods of accomplishing the organisational mission.

This conception of transformational leadership, is relatively new. Research and thinking about leadership is continually pushing the existing boundaries and expanding our conceptions of what it means to lead. Ideas from the latest findings in the physical and biological sciences are also being used as new metaphors and models for our thinking about organisational leadership.

Empowerment: Leadership in practice
Successful leaders are able to motivate, to energise and to empower others. When people are excited and empowered in this sense, it affects both their task initiation and task persistence. That is, empowered people get more involved, take on more difficult situations, and act more confidently. Empowered people expend more effort on a given task and are more persistent in their efforts.

The central question for us is how can leaders empower, motivate and activate people? Based on Bandura's (1974) classic work on self-efficacy beliefs and their effects on people's sense of personal power, we will discuss several means of empowering others. We know that people gain confidence when they take on a new and complex task, receive training if necessary, and complete a task successfully. Therefore, one important set of leadership skills relates to coaching and counselling wherein we are concerned with providing employees with the necessary direction, information, skills and support necessary for task mastery. We also know that when people feel more capable, they are empowered intellectually. There is a wealth of evidence that what we believe we are capable of doing is shaped by what others believe us to be capable of. If we expect people to succeed they will be more likely to do so than if we expect them to fail. Therefore, another critical set of leadership skills is related to oral persuasion and motivation.  A third process for activating people is to provide a successful role-model from which to observe and learn. This modelling and role-model effect is not as powerful as actually experiencing mastery; however, it does have positive effects (Bandura, 1986). Therefore, a third set of leadership skills is powerful-people skills, related to how you as an individual can feel and behave more powerfully, and can act as a positive leadership role-model.  Each of these will be considered in more detail below.

Coaching and counselling
The first source of empowerment comes from the information someone receives as they actually master a job-related task. When people perform complex tasks or are given more responsibility in their jobs they have the chance to test themselves. Successful experiences make one feel more capable and confident and, therefore, empowered. Therefore, a critical set of skills is related to coaching and counseling.

When acting as a coach or a counselor, leaders are providing direction, knowledge, training, skills, resources, support and a listening and caring ear, all of which are necessary for successful task completion. In these roles leaders can directly assist subordinates to take on, successfully complete and master, new and complex tasks.

Choosing between coaching and counselling
When a performance or attitude problem is identified, it is important to determine if the cause is due primarily to a personal problem of the employee, in which case it may be necessary to act as a counselor, or if it is more related to work motivation or a lack of knowledge or skills, in which case the role of the coach may be more beneficial. Although these two roles overlap in many ways, it is important to have this basic distinction clearly in mind.

When counseling someone, you may have to deal more with feelings and emotions. If someone has experienced a significant re-organisation, missed out on a promotion or a salary rise, feels stressed or unhappy with a peer, a superior, or a work assignment, or has personal problems that are affecting his or her work performance, the counseling option should be considered. Good counseling does not mean giving good advice. In fact, it is better to avoid giving any advice at all. Good counseling is not good talking, it is good listening, real empathy, and good communication. Effective coaching, on the other hand, is concerned with self-confidence building, skills acquisition, team work and motivation. If you are teaching a new job skill, orienting a new employee, or attempting to energise someone, a coaching role is more appropriate.  

Many of us feel uncomfortable considering taking on the role of a counselor. Some of us may be thinking, "I am a manager, not a therapist." However, taking on the role of counselor is not the same as trying to become a therapist. Many of the skills required by the counseling role are also the skills involved in providing effective feedback, being a good communicator and a good coach.

The coaching role
Within the coaching role, there are a number of different sub-roles or skills that are necessary.

1. Providing direction and knowledge.  One important role is that of information gatekeeper. Leaders can provide knowledge and information regarding job responsibilities, goal expectations and plans. Another key role is to provide direction to help people to set goals and to plan.

Effective goals are specific and challenging. Goals such as wanting to 'do a good job' or to 'do better next time' are ambiguous. Goals such as 'I want to sell five new units' or 'I plan to have the first draft complete by next Friday' are more specific. In terms of challenge, goals that are a 'stretch' for people are considered best. That is, an easy goal provides little incentive; providing unrealistically difficult goals is also not motivating.

Providing goals that are specific and challenging are more likely to result in success. When providing direction and setting goals, the key job tasks must be clarified and time limits must be set. Some people consider these the 'to dos' and the 'by whens'. If you know what you are expected to do and by when you are expected to have it done, you can go about planning, executing and achieving your goals most effectively.

However, one more critical piece of information is necessary sometimes. You need to know where you are in relation to the goal. This is an essential piece of information, sometimes overlooked. Once you know where you are, where you want to go and by when, you have all of the necessary information to begin planning how you will get from where you are to where you want to be. There are frequently a number of reasonable alternatives from which to choose at this point. You should allow people to choose their own means for goal achievement when possible. Alternatively, you should encourage active participation in the process, or at least gain agreement after discussion of the means. This facilitates ownership and involvement.

The next tasks involve establishing specific and challenging goals for each key task planned. Also deadlines for each goal must be specified, feedback mechanisms to assess goal progress must be built in, and any coordination requirements (e.g., Is the cooperation and contribution of others necessary?) must be considered. In other words, the specific requirements for success must be delineated. Frequently, the person delegating or acting as the superior, has not sufficiently thought through the activities and may not have a specific and realistic expectation regarding outcomes. Finally, if appropriate, it is important to commit specific rewards contingent on goal attainment.

Check Point - Providing Direction and Setting Goals

The key questions to ask yourself regarding direction and goal setting are:

  • Where are we now?
  • Where do we want to go?
  • How can we get there?
  • How do we agree we will get there?
  • How will we know we are going in the right direction?
  • How will we know we are there?
  • What will we receive when we get there?

2. Provide resources, training and skills.  Another element of coaching is to provide the training, tools, materials, facilities, money, time, etc. necessary for people to get their jobs done. Leaders help others grow by providing information regarding opportunities for training and skills development, and the necessary resources to take advantage of those opportunities. This can be done indirectly, by making time and/or money available. It can be done directly by actively teaching skills in certain situations.

Take a moment to think of the last time you learned or taught a new skill or technique. Perhaps you took a course related to computers or a new piece of software. Maybe you were teaching one of your children a game or sporting skill.

  • Was the experience positive and successful or not?
  • What were the steps involved in the process?
  • Was the purpose and importance of the skill discussed?
  • Was there some time taken for setting the context and the goals?
  • Was the learning process explained?
  • Were the skills illustrated or modelled in some way?
  • Did you have a chance to practice the skills?
  • Was feedback given?
  • Were positive expressions of confidence and encouragement provided?

If you answered 'NO' to too many of these questions I suspect that the experience was not very positive and was not as successful as it could have been.

When directly trying to teach someone a skill, it is important to:

  • explain the purpose and importance of what you are trying to teach;
  • explain the process to be used;
  • show how it is done;
  • observe while the person practises the process;
  • provide immediate and specific feedback;
  • express confidence in the person's ability to succeed; and
  • agree on follow-up actions if necessary.

3. Providing support.  A critical coaching role is to provide approval, feedback, encouragement and protection where necessary. The supportive role is becoming increasingly important as individuals and teams at operational levels in organisations take on more responsibility. It may be helpful to think about you working for your subordinates, or at least to consider what services you can and do provide for them. Coaching in this sense is true motivational power. It is the essence of true leadership. This is also closely akin to the topic of the next section on counseling.

The counseling role
A counseling session requires significant preparation. You must consider the number of sessions you estimate will be necessary, the degree of trust and rapport you have with the employee, and the employees' confidence level. For example, if you think that the situation is serious and will require your meeting with the individual once a month for the next six months, you should let the individual know that. If the employee is very self-confident and you have a good rapport established with the individual, you can be more direct and action oriented in your session. If, however, the individual is not self-confident and you do not know them very well, you will have to invest more time in gaining trust and establishing a relationship.

You should also pay attention to the physical arrangements involved making sure to remove distractions (e.g., ringing telephones) and physical barriers between you and the employee such as desks. If you sit behind a desk in a large chair and the employee is five meters away in a small chair next to your secretary, these arrangements are not contributing to an atmosphere of trust in which you can have a private conversation about personal issues and feelings. Because many people are anxious about counseling sessions at first, you should be quite clear about the nature of the meeting, as well as the time, the place, and duration of the session.

Issues for counseling sessions

  1. Do not judge. Having a preconceived notion of what the real problem is, is a good way to ensure failure of the session. Being judgmental and expressing opinions regarding the employee's choices and decisions are not effective counseling behaviours. You will be more successful if you avoid words such as should, must, and ought. Once again, listening is a key.

  2. Do not give advice. It is very tempting to make suggestions and to try and solve problems for people once you think you know what the issues are. Telling the employee what to do is giving advice. Counselors can not solve problems for anyone except themselves. Good counseling managers listen, reflect, and try to get the employee to suggest potential solutions. Of course in your leadership role it is appropriate to provide resources and information. However, try not to fall into the trap of taking the problems on as if they were yours. The individual will benefit much more if you consider ways to empower them to handle the situation.

  3. Stay within your limits. When taking on the role of a counselor at work you must be aware of your limitations. If the problem is beyond your scope and expertise, say so, and then refer the individual to the Human Resources department or to a professional therapist.

  4. Feelings are serious. It is critical that counselors take a person's problem seriously and treat them in the strictest confidence. Down-playing someone's problems by saying 'cheer up' or 'don't worry' is not usually as effective as real listening and attempts to direct the person toward finding their own solutions. Of course, counselors must assure the individual involved that everything discussed will be kept confidential. This promise must be kept.

  5. Remember that emotions are difficult to express. In many cases, it is important to address feelings and emotions at work, in addition to all that we do usually. If we do not, we are neglecting an important part of our beings, of our humanity. By addressing grief, fears, hatred or the sense of something missing, the wholeness of human expression is acknowledged. Emotional flow leads to emotional, physical and mental health for individuals and organisations. When people are afraid of feelings and emotions, or when their expression is seen as a problem, it is because they have been cut off for so long and are so far out of balance, that when the inner emotions and feelings come up and out, they explode from a distorted state of 'out-of-balance'. This is what leads to problems.

    Unbalanced emotion comes out as inappropriate decisions and rude behaviour towards clients and customers. When emotions are felt and expressed from a place of balance, that is when they are tempered and balanced with rational thought and careful consideration, they are appropriate and not a problem. Balanced emotion comes out as thoughtful, legitimate expressions of joy or fear that actually enhance the performance of the people in the situation. It is important to provide positive emotional support to employees, especially during times of stress and anxiety. We know that negative emotional arousal (e.g., stress, fear and anxiety) can lower self-efficacy expectations. We also know that competence is enhanced when positive emotional support and a trusting atmosphere are provided.

    Many of us are very uncomfortable with expressing our emotions. Men in our society are taught, frequently from a very early age, that it is not acceptable to cry or to be upset. Women in work situations are sometimes concerned with expressing emotions because they do not want to be perceived as weak. Most of us have been conditioned to think that work is not the place for emotion, it is the place for logic and reason. All of this contributes to the general difficulty and unease that surrounds the idea of a counseling session at work. This is a fact of life and we simply have to deal with it.

Oral persuasion and motivation
Verbal persuasion is perhaps the most obvious of the leadership behaviours. Leaders are expected to make inspiring speeches. Words of encouragement, positive verbal feedback and other forms of social persuasion may be used to empower people. If someone is convinced that they have the ability to master a given task, they are likely to work harder than if they harbour self-doubts or concentrate on problems when they arise. Clearly, the effect that persuasion and motivational communications have on people is likely to be weaker than the effect from one's own accomplishments; it is considerable, nonetheless.

You probably have good people working with you and for you, but they may not know it yet. For them to know it, you must be able to provide words of encouragement and positive persuasion. Personal praise and highly visible rewards build confidence and identify role-models. If someone expects that you will do well and if they use positive oral persuasion (i.e., pep talks, motivational speeches, expressions of positive emotions), this can have a positive effect on an individual's motivation.

Oral persuasion, however, is not always talking. In order to persuade someone, you must also be an excellent listener.  Some people would suggest that the only thing to consider when discussing oral persuasion is the sending part of the communication (i.e., the message). Clearly, if you are trying to persuade someone of something, what you say is critical. Good persuaders, however, are first and foremost excellent listeners. When trying to persuade someone, listening is important because it is critical to be able to empathise with the other, to understand and appreciate their point of view, and to identify their objections and concerns. The best leaders are excellent listeners. Below are some guidelines for good oral persuasion.

Establish credibility. People who like, trust and have confidence in you are more likely to be persuaded by you. If you are considered to be competent and expert, to have worthy intentions and can be trusted, to have an ethical, dependable character, and to have a friendly, enthusiastic personality, you will be more persuasive.

Use a positive, tactful tone. A negative, aggressive or condescending tone of voice may put people off, close them down, make them defensive or irritate them. If any of these things happen, your chances of persuasion have been reduced. While a respectful, direct, tactful approach may not always persuade the other person, it will at least not harm your credibility and your relationship, and it will increase your chances of successful persuasion in the future.

Present few ideas, logically, one at a time. Most people respond to reason. Straightforward, logical arguments, clearly stated, well explained and justified are more likely to convince people than those that are not. There is a tendency for us to think that five arguments or reasons are better than two. Providing too many reasons, however, allows people to grab onto the weakest of them and undermine your entire argument. It is best to present only a few of the most persuasive arguments, and to do this one at a time, to avoid the 'weakest link' problem.

Use emotion. Reason and logic are enhanced by emotional appeals. We are all motivated by our fears, our loves and our expectations. It is useful, especially when trying to motivate and excite people, to go directly to the emotional level. Using words that are active can help. However, people respond to emotion, emotionally. That is, if you interact with an enthusiastic, emotional person, their words form only part of that impression. The rest of the impression comes from their body, their movements, their voice, etc. Therefore, if you want people to be enthusiastic about something, you must be enthusiastic about it as well and you must model that enthusiasm for them.

Listen, listen, and listen. In order to persuade someone, you have to know what motivates them. You have to have a sense of what is going on inside of them. A simple, effective way to persuade someone is to appeal to the person's self-interest. If you know what makes them tick, you can more easily persuade by illustrating how they will benefit from your proposal. This is a form of the more general tactic of tailoring your argument to the other person. If you can hear their objections, their fears or their reasoning, you have a better chance of positioning your argument and addressing relevant points.

Checkpoint summary. The following chart illustrates contrasting examples and provides a summary of how we can help make people feel powerless or powerful.

How to make people feel powerless

Be negative 

Be controlling 

Be authoritarian 

Do not explain 

Give rewards arbitrarily

Give meaningless rewards

Ignore innovation 

Give little information 

Assume people have skills or will figure it out 

Do not provide technical support 

Set unrealistic goals for people 

Hoard power and authority 

Ensure simple, repetitive, boring tasks 

Allow rules and procedures to proliferate 

Low contact with senior management

How to make people feel powerful

Be positive

Be rewarding

Be responsive 

Provide reasons 

Give contingent rewards

Give valued rewards 

Encourage innovation 

Give maximal information 

Train/develop your people 

Provide technical support 

Set realistic, agreed-upon goals 

Give appropriate discretion 

Ensure task variety and wholeness 

Allow creativity 

High contact among all

Powerful people skills
One of the most subtle, yet effective ways to lead and empower people is to be a model of successful, assertive behaviour from which others can learn. People feel empowered by watching and then modelling the behaviour of others who perform successfully on the job. Therefore, the third set of leadership skills we will discuss are the skills to empower you so that you can act as a positive role-model for those around you. Quite frequently people in organisational settings look upward for cues and norms regarding expected and acceptable forms of behaviour. The following is an example of this process from the author's work experiences.

    'A few years ago we were installing a new computer system where I worked. There were a few middle-level managers who were resisting the change. The senior manager sent out an important message on the electronic mail system that these resistors missed. They were chastised severely for missing the information and for not using the system. Their behaviour very quickly changed. If the boss was using the system, they realised they had better use it too.'

At first, you might think that this does not sound like a very empowering situation. I thought leaders did not chastise people. However, compare it to the situation in which the senior manager exercised his/her legitimate authority and simply gave an order or established a new process or procedure. Would this have motivated the resisting managers to actually use the system? If they eventually did come around to use the system, how do you think they would feel about it? In the case above, the resisting managers actually had the chance to see the value of using the system and to understand that the "boss" was going to be using it, and therefore, I will be expected to be using it as well. It was a simple case of leading by example. Stated more positively, if you want your people to express themselves, to have fun, to work hard, or to do what ever it is you think they need to be doing, one way to get them to do it is for you to do it first, visibly, and frequently. This is one of the differences between leading and managing.

Being a positive role model at work means we have to stand up for ourselves, humanely and positively. When we let ourselves be known to others we gain both self-respect and respect from other people. When we act powerfully, that is, when we express our honest feelings and thoughts in direct and appropriate ways, everyone involved usually benefits in the long run. However, when we sacrifice our integrity or deny our personal thoughts and feelings, we detract from ourselves and our relationships with others, that is, we all lose confidence. Our self-esteem and our relationships suffer when we try to control others through hostility, intimidation or guilt.

Remember that becoming a more powerful, assertive individual and role model does not guarantee that you will always get what you want. Nor does it imply that leaders must become some sort of perfect, super-humans. These attitudes and skills are not the solutions to all of your personal and organisational problems. However, working towards becoming a more empowering and powerful person does have the following potential benefits:

  1. It provides personal satisfaction because you are actively attempting to influence and be effective in situations in which you are involved.

  2. It reinforces your self-confidence and self-worth.

  3. It increases your personal power and value to others.

  4. It provides you with more of an ability to choose for yourself when and how you respond in a given situation, rather than being at the mercy of old patterns, habits and unconscious reactions.

  5. It increases your willingness to accept the consequences of your chosen actions because you are more likely to be operating from a place of personal power and a sense of conviction and confidence.

There are many situations in which you, as a practising manager, will find that assertive, straightforward, direct and positive communication will improve your effectiveness as well as provide a model of effective leadership behaviour for others. For example, being clear and assertive will result in greater effectiveness during performance appraisal or goal setting interviews, during meetings, when delegating, and when trying to close a deal.

Top of page



Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Stogdill, R. M. (1974).  Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.

Yammarino, F. J., Spangler, W. D. & Bass, B. M. (1993). Transformational leadership and performance: A longitudinal investigation. Leadership Quarterly, 4, 81 - 102.

Bandura, A. (1974). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change, Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive view. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

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