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Leadership and empowerment
Leadership and Empowerment
Implementers of innovation and technical change are
frequently task focused. It is their responsibility to get the job done! However, many
people find that they can not do it all by themselves. It may come as quite a shock to
some that they can not stay involved fully in all operational aspects of the project.
Once they adjust to this, however, they begin to realise
that if they want to get things done, they need to be able to influence their bosses,
peers, subordinates, suppliers, customers, etc. Therefore, a major focus of the
implementer of innovation and technical change is how to motivate, to energise and to
activate others as individuals or in groups.
The ultimate paradox of social leadership and social
power is that to be an effective leader, one must turn all of their so-called followers
into leaders. In this way, processes such as relationships and the issues of leadership
and empowerment become important. Each of these issues is discussed in more detail
below and can be accessed by scrolling down the page:
coaching and counselling
oral persuasion and motivation
powerful people skills
There are four historical perspectives of leadership that should be considered:
the trait perspective, the behavioural perspective, the contingency perspective and the
transformational perspective. We will consider each in turn.
One perspective on leadership is that leaders are born, not made. Early studies looked at
leadership as a collection of personality and character traits. The basic assumption is
that the great woman/man makes a great leader. While very few seem now to be convinced
that inherent personality traits are the sole determinants of leadership capability and
success, research has been able to identify several constellations of personal variables
that seem to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful leaders.
Stogdill's now classic (1974) review of hundreds of trait
studies revealed that the following are five important distinguishing factors:
- Capacity. The ability to problem-solve and make judgements
based upon traits such as intelligence, alertness, verbal ability and originality.
- Achievement. The ability to achieve more academically and
- Responsibility. The characteristics of dependability,
initiative, persistence and self-confidence.
- Participation. The ability to be involved, to be active,
sociable, adaptable and cooperative.
- Status. More effective leaders have higher socio-economic
and social status.
It should be remembered that this research is not saying
that because you have higher status, you will be a better leader. It is saying that these
traits are associated with successful leaders.
A behavioural perspective on leadership focuses not
on what a leader is, as the trait approach does, it
focuses on what a leader does. Two classic series of
leadership studies, done primarily in the 1950's and
1960's at the Universities of Ohio State and Michigan,
have lead to the fundamental distinction between task-oriented
and person-oriented leadership behaviour. It seems
clear that successful leadership involves both (1)
attention to the task and getting the job done, while
also (2) attending to people and social processes.
A task focus is necessary if a group is going to stay
on track and achieve its goals. One aspect of leadership
behaviour, therefore, must concentrate on defining
roles, providing structures, directing activities,
communicating information, scheduling, etc. It is critical
that leaders attend to the content of decisions and
tasks at hand. These types of activities, however,
are all too frequently the sole focus of the leader
and the group. The second factor these studies
highlighted, of equal importance, relates to consideration
of peoples' feelings and the building of mutual trust
and respect for people's ideas and attitudes. It is
also concerned with how the group goes about achieving
what it needs to achieve. For example, the content
of this Background Information is leadership. As above, we
must be concerned with getting our content correct
and we also need to structure that information in a
way that makes it accessible. I have chosen to pass
this information on in the form of a hyper-text manual.
I could have provided the same content to you via a
series of lectures, via discussion groups, or via video
or audio tapes. In other words, there are a number
of processes to choose from that all could have conveyed
the same content. In this way, good leaders attend
not only to the content and task, but also to the process
of how to approach that task and achieve that goal.
Although the approaches to leadership discussed above do provide a certain level of
knowledge and insight into leadership, they both suffer from a similar problem. They do
not account for the fact that what may be considered good leadership under one set of
circumstances, may not be considered so under other conditions. For example, although as a
leader I may value participation and discussion and want to involve every one in
decision-making, if the room is on fire, it would very likely not be a good time for a
committee meeting to discuss evacuation procedures. We may, in this case, all be best
served by one individual taking command calmly and organising people to evacuate the
premises quickly and efficiently. If this autocratic style hurts certain people's feelings
in the process, most independent observers would say that is a small price to pay for
efficient evacuation and ultimate survival.
It is in this spirit of "it depends" that
contingency perspectives of leadership are considered. A basic premise of a contingency
approach is that behaviour is a function of both the person and the situation. That is,
people behave they way they do (e.g., dress and act a certain way) because of both their
personality and the situation. I might wear a suit to a business meeting because the
situation calls for it, but I wear a certain tie or spend twice as much money on the suit
compared to another, because of my personality. Similarly, a contingency perspective on
leadership suggests that the most appropriate leadership behaviour will depend on both the
individuals involved and the situation.
It is suggested, therefore,
that there is no one right or best leadership style.
The right or best answer is, "It depends".
The set of factors upon which "it depends"
are called contingencies. In other words, the best
leadership behaviours are determined contingent upon
a set of circumstances regarding the people involved
and the situation. For more information on this
topic, go to contingent
Another, more recently distinguished idea, is between transactional and
transformational leadership. transactional leaders attempt to satisfy the current
needs of followers by focusing their attention on tasks and interpersonal exchanges.
Transformational leaders, on the other hand, attempt to stimulate followers and promote
dramatic changes in individuals, groups and organisations (Burns, 1978). This distinction
does not substitute for the other conceptualisations discussed above. It appears to go
One critical difference between transactional and
transformational leadership is in regards to performance. It has been suggested that
transactional leadership provides the basis for expected levels of performance, while
transformational leadership builds upon that base resulting in performance beyond
expectations (Bass, 1985). According to Yammarino, Spangler and Bass (1993),
transformational leaders "motivate subordinates to do more than originally expected.
They raise the consciousness of subordinates about the importance and value of designated
outcomes and ways of reaching them and, in turn, get subordinates to transcend their own
immediate self-interests for the sake of the mission and vision of the organisation.
Subordinates' confidence levels are raised and their needs are expanded" (p 85).
This increased motivation is linked to three factors of
- Transformational leaders are more charismatic and
inspiring in the eyes of their followers. They inspire commitment, instil a vision and
excite people. They are well trusted and their followers feel confidence in them.
- Transformational leaders give individual consideration.
They pay attention to individual differences in subordinates' needs for growth and
development. They coach, mentor and assign tasks that not only satisfy immediate needs,
but stretch people's capabilities in an effort toward improvement. They also link the
individual's current needs to the organisation's mission.
- Transformational leaders provide intellectual stimulation.
They raise peoples' awareness of issues and problems. They help people become aware of
their own thoughts, imagination, beliefs and values. It is through intellectual
stimulation that transformational leaders facilitate the generation of new methods of
accomplishing the organisational mission.
This conception of transformational leadership, is
relatively new. Research and thinking about leadership is continually pushing the existing
boundaries and expanding our conceptions of what it means to lead. Ideas from the latest
findings in the physical and biological sciences are also being used as new metaphors and
models for our thinking about organisational leadership.
Leadership in practice
Successful leaders are able to motivate, to energise and to empower others. When
people are excited and empowered in this sense, it affects both their task initiation and
task persistence. That is, empowered people get more involved, take on more difficult
situations, and act more confidently. Empowered people expend more effort on a given task
and are more persistent in their efforts.
The central question for us is how can leaders empower,
motivate and activate people? Based on Bandura's (1974) classic work on self-efficacy
beliefs and their effects on people's sense of personal power, we will discuss several
means of empowering others. We know that people gain confidence when they take on a new
and complex task, receive training if necessary, and complete a task successfully.
Therefore, one important set of leadership skills relates to coaching and counselling
wherein we are concerned with providing employees with the necessary direction,
information, skills and support necessary for task mastery. We also know that when people
feel more capable, they are empowered intellectually. There is a wealth of evidence that
what we believe we are capable of doing is shaped by what others believe us to be capable
of. If we expect people to succeed they will be more likely to do so than if we expect
them to fail. Therefore, another critical set of leadership skills is related to oral
persuasion and motivation. A third process for activating people is to provide a
successful role-model from which to observe and learn. This modelling and role-model
effect is not as powerful as actually experiencing mastery; however, it does have positive
effects (Bandura, 1986). Therefore, a third set of leadership skills is powerful-people
skills, related to how you as an individual can feel and behave more powerfully, and can
act as a positive leadership role-model. Each of these will be considered in more
The first source of empowerment comes from the information
someone receives as they actually master a job-related
task. When people perform complex tasks or are given
more responsibility in their jobs they have the chance
to test themselves. Successful experiences make one
feel more capable and confident and, therefore, empowered.
Therefore, a critical set of skills is related to coaching
When acting as a coach
or a counselor, leaders are providing direction, knowledge,
training, skills, resources, support and a listening
and caring ear, all of which are necessary for successful
task completion. In these roles leaders can directly
assist subordinates to take on, successfully complete
and master, new and complex tasks.
Choosing between coaching and
When a performance or attitude problem is identified,
it is important to determine if the cause is due primarily
to a personal problem of the employee, in which case
it may be necessary to act as a counselor, or if it
is more related to work motivation or a lack of knowledge
or skills, in which case the role of the coach may
be more beneficial. Although these two roles overlap
in many ways, it is important to have this basic distinction
clearly in mind.
When counseling someone,
you may have to deal more with feelings and emotions.
If someone has experienced a significant re-organisation,
missed out on a promotion or a salary rise, feels
stressed or unhappy with a peer, a superior, or a
work assignment, or has personal problems that are
affecting his or her work performance, the counseling
option should be considered. Good counseling does
not mean giving good advice. In fact, it is better
to avoid giving any advice at all. Good counseling
is not good talking, it is good listening, real empathy,
and good communication. Effective coaching, on the
other hand, is concerned with self-confidence building,
skills acquisition, team work and motivation. If you
are teaching a new job skill, orienting a new employee,
or attempting to energise someone, a coaching role
is more appropriate.
- Many of us feel uncomfortable
considering taking on the role of a counselor. Some
of us may be thinking, "I am a manager, not a
therapist." However, taking on the role of counselor
is not the same as trying to become a therapist. Many
of the skills required by the counseling role are
also the skills involved in providing effective feedback,
being a good communicator and a good coach.
Within the coaching role, there are a number of different sub-roles or skills that are
1. Providing direction and knowledge. One important
role is that of information gatekeeper. Leaders can provide knowledge and information
regarding job responsibilities, goal expectations and plans. Another key role is to
provide direction to help people to set goals and to plan.
Effective goals are specific and challenging. Goals such
as wanting to 'do a good job' or to 'do better next time' are ambiguous. Goals such as 'I
want to sell five new units' or 'I plan to have the first draft complete by next Friday'
are more specific. In terms of challenge, goals that are a 'stretch' for people are
considered best. That is, an easy goal provides little incentive; providing
unrealistically difficult goals is also not motivating.
Providing goals that are specific and challenging are
more likely to result in success. When providing direction and setting goals, the key job
tasks must be clarified and time limits must be set. Some people consider these the 'to
dos' and the 'by whens'. If you know what you are expected to do and by when you are
expected to have it done, you can go about planning, executing and achieving your goals
However, one more critical piece of information is
necessary sometimes. You need to know where you are in relation to the goal. This is an
essential piece of information, sometimes overlooked. Once you know where you are, where
you want to go and by when, you have all of the necessary information to begin planning
how you will get from where you are to where you want to be. There are frequently a number
of reasonable alternatives from which to choose at this point. You should allow people to
choose their own means for goal achievement when possible. Alternatively, you should
encourage active participation in the process, or at least gain agreement after discussion
of the means. This facilitates ownership and involvement.
The next tasks involve establishing specific and
challenging goals for each key task planned. Also deadlines for each goal must be
specified, feedback mechanisms to assess goal progress must be built in, and any
coordination requirements (e.g., Is the cooperation and contribution of others necessary?)
must be considered. In other words, the specific requirements for success must be
delineated. Frequently, the person delegating or acting as the superior, has not
sufficiently thought through the activities and may not have a specific and realistic
expectation regarding outcomes. Finally, if appropriate, it is important to commit
specific rewards contingent on goal attainment.
Check Point - Providing Direction and Setting Goals
The key questions to ask yourself regarding direction and
goal setting are:
- Where are we now?
- Where do we want to go?
- How can we get there?
- How do we agree we will get there?
- How will we know we are going in the right direction?
- How will we know we are there?
- What will we receive when we get there?
2. Provide resources, training and skills. Another
element of coaching is to provide the training, tools, materials, facilities, money, time,
etc. necessary for people to get their jobs done. Leaders help others grow by providing
information regarding opportunities for training and skills development, and the necessary
resources to take advantage of those opportunities. This can be done indirectly, by making
time and/or money available. It can be done directly by actively teaching skills in
Take a moment to think of the last time you learned or
taught a new skill or technique. Perhaps you took a course related to computers or a new
piece of software. Maybe you were teaching one of your children a game or sporting skill.
- Was the experience positive and successful or not?
- What were the steps involved in the process?
- Was the purpose and importance of the skill discussed?
- Was there some time taken for setting the context and the
- Was the learning process explained?
- Were the skills illustrated or modelled in some way?
- Did you have a chance to practice the skills?
- Was feedback given?
- Were positive expressions of confidence and encouragement
If you answered 'NO' to too many of
these questions I suspect that the experience was not very positive and was not as
successful as it could have been.
When directly trying to teach someone a skill, it is
- explain the purpose and importance of what you are trying
- explain the process to be used;
- show how it is done;
- observe while the person practises the process;
- provide immediate and specific feedback;
- express confidence in the person's ability to succeed; and
- agree on follow-up actions if necessary.
3. Providing support.
A critical coaching role is to provide approval, feedback,
encouragement and protection where necessary. The
supportive role is becoming increasingly important
as individuals and teams at operational levels in
organisations take on more responsibility. It may
be helpful to think about you working for your subordinates,
or at least to consider what services you can and
do provide for them. Coaching in this sense is true
motivational power. It is the essence of true leadership.
This is also closely akin to the topic of the next
section on counseling.
A counseling session requires significant preparation.
You must consider the number of sessions you estimate
will be necessary, the degree of trust and rapport
you have with the employee, and the employees' confidence
level. For example, if you think that the situation
is serious and will require your meeting with the
individual once a month for the next six months, you
should let the individual know that. If the employee
is very self-confident and you have a good rapport
established with the individual, you can be more direct
and action oriented in your session. If, however,
the individual is not self-confident and you do not
know them very well, you will have to invest more
time in gaining trust and establishing a relationship.
You should also pay
attention to the physical arrangements involved making
sure to remove distractions (e.g., ringing telephones)
and physical barriers between you and the employee
such as desks. If you sit behind a desk in a large
chair and the employee is five meters away in a small
chair next to your secretary, these arrangements are
not contributing to an atmosphere of trust in which
you can have a private conversation about personal
issues and feelings. Because many people are anxious
about counseling sessions at first, you should be
quite clear about the nature of the meeting, as well
as the time, the place, and duration of the session.
Issues for counseling
- Do not judge. Having
a preconceived notion of what the real problem is,
is a good way to ensure failure of the session. Being
judgmental and expressing opinions regarding the
employee's choices and decisions are not effective
counseling behaviours. You will be more successful
if you avoid words such as should, must, and ought.
Once again, listening is a key.
- Do not give advice.
It is very tempting to make suggestions and to try
and solve problems for people once you think you
know what the issues are. Telling the employee what
to do is giving advice. Counselors can not solve
problems for anyone except themselves. Good counseling
managers listen, reflect, and try to get the employee
to suggest potential solutions. Of course in your
leadership role it is appropriate to provide resources
and information. However, try not to fall into the
trap of taking the problems on as if they were yours.
The individual will benefit much more if you consider
ways to empower them to handle the situation.
- Stay within your
limits. When taking on the role of a counselor at
work you must be aware of your limitations. If the
problem is beyond your scope and expertise, say so,
and then refer the individual to the Human Resources
department or to a professional therapist.
- Feelings are serious.
It is critical that counselors take a person's problem
seriously and treat them in the strictest confidence.
Down-playing someone's problems by saying 'cheer
up' or 'don't worry' is not usually as effective
as real listening and attempts to direct the person
toward finding their own solutions. Of course, counselors
must assure the individual involved that everything
discussed will be kept confidential. This promise
must be kept.
- Remember that emotions
are difficult to express. In many cases, it is important
to address feelings and emotions at work, in addition
to all that we do usually. If we do not, we are neglecting
an important part of our beings, of our humanity.
By addressing grief, fears, hatred or the sense of
something missing, the wholeness of human expression
is acknowledged. Emotional flow leads to emotional,
physical and mental health for individuals and organisations.
When people are afraid of feelings and emotions,
or when their expression is seen as a problem, it
is because they have been cut off for so long and
are so far out of balance, that when the inner emotions
and feelings come up and out, they explode from a
distorted state of 'out-of-balance'. This is what
leads to problems.
comes out as inappropriate decisions and rude behaviour
towards clients and customers. When emotions are
felt and expressed from a place of balance, that
is when they are tempered and balanced with rational
thought and careful consideration, they are appropriate
and not a problem. Balanced emotion comes out as
thoughtful, legitimate expressions of joy or fear
that actually enhance the performance of the people
in the situation. It is important to provide positive
emotional support to employees, especially during
times of stress and anxiety. We know that negative
emotional arousal (e.g., stress, fear and anxiety)
can lower self-efficacy expectations. We also know
that competence is enhanced when positive emotional
support and a trusting atmosphere are provided.
Many of us are very
uncomfortable with expressing our emotions. Men
in our society are taught, frequently from a very
early age, that it is not acceptable to cry or to
be upset. Women in work situations are sometimes
concerned with expressing emotions because they
do not want to be perceived as weak. Most of us
have been conditioned to think that work is not
the place for emotion, it is the place for logic
and reason. All of this contributes to the general
difficulty and unease that surrounds the idea of
a counseling session at work. This is a fact of
life and we simply have to deal with it.
persuasion and motivation
Verbal persuasion is perhaps the most obvious of the leadership behaviours. Leaders are
expected to make inspiring speeches. Words of encouragement, positive verbal feedback and
other forms of social persuasion may be used to empower people. If someone is convinced
that they have the ability to master a given task, they are likely to work harder than if
they harbour self-doubts or concentrate on problems when they arise. Clearly, the effect
that persuasion and motivational communications have on people is likely to be weaker than
the effect from one's own accomplishments; it is considerable, nonetheless.
You probably have good people working with you and for
you, but they may not know it yet. For them to know it, you must be able to provide words
of encouragement and positive persuasion. Personal praise and highly visible rewards build
confidence and identify role-models. If someone expects that you will do well and if they
use positive oral persuasion (i.e., pep talks, motivational speeches, expressions of
positive emotions), this can have a positive effect on an individual's motivation.
Oral persuasion, however, is not always talking. In order
to persuade someone, you must also be an excellent listener. Some people would
suggest that the only thing to consider when discussing oral persuasion is the sending
part of the communication (i.e., the message). Clearly, if you are trying to persuade
someone of something, what you say is critical. Good persuaders, however, are first and
foremost excellent listeners. When trying to persuade someone, listening is important
because it is critical to be able to empathise with the other, to understand and
appreciate their point of view, and to identify their objections and concerns. The best
leaders are excellent listeners. Below are some guidelines for good oral persuasion.
Establish credibility. People who like, trust and have
confidence in you are more likely to be persuaded by you. If you are considered to be
competent and expert, to have worthy intentions and can be trusted, to have an ethical,
dependable character, and to have a friendly, enthusiastic personality, you will be more
Use a positive, tactful tone. A negative, aggressive or
condescending tone of voice may put people off, close them down, make them defensive or
irritate them. If any of these things happen, your chances of persuasion have been
reduced. While a respectful, direct, tactful approach may not always persuade the other
person, it will at least not harm your credibility and your relationship, and it will
increase your chances of successful persuasion in the future.
Present few ideas, logically, one at a time. Most people
respond to reason. Straightforward, logical arguments, clearly stated, well explained and
justified are more likely to convince people than those that are not. There is a tendency
for us to think that five arguments or reasons are better than two. Providing too many
reasons, however, allows people to grab onto the weakest of them and undermine your entire
argument. It is best to present only a few of the most persuasive arguments, and to do
this one at a time, to avoid the 'weakest link' problem.
Use emotion. Reason and logic are enhanced by emotional
appeals. We are all motivated by our fears, our loves and our expectations. It is useful,
especially when trying to motivate and excite people, to go directly to the emotional
level. Using words that are active can help. However, people respond to emotion,
emotionally. That is, if you interact with an enthusiastic, emotional person, their words
form only part of that impression. The rest of the impression comes from their body, their
movements, their voice, etc. Therefore, if you want people to be enthusiastic about
something, you must be enthusiastic about it as well and you must model that enthusiasm
Listen, listen, and listen. In order to persuade someone,
you have to know what motivates them. You have to have a sense of what is going on inside
of them. A simple, effective way to persuade someone is to appeal to the person's
self-interest. If you know what makes them tick, you can more easily persuade by
illustrating how they will benefit from your proposal. This is a form of the more general
tactic of tailoring your argument to the other person. If you can hear their objections,
their fears or their reasoning, you have a better chance of positioning your argument and
addressing relevant points.
Checkpoint summary. The following chart illustrates
contrasting examples and provides a summary of how we can help make people feel powerless
|How to make people feel powerless
Do not explain
Give rewards arbitrarily
Give meaningless rewards
Give little information
Assume people have skills or will figure it out
Do not provide technical support
Set unrealistic goals for people
Hoard power and authority
Ensure simple, repetitive, boring tasks
Allow rules and procedures to proliferate
Low contact with senior management
|How to make people feel powerful
Give contingent rewards
Give valued rewards
Give maximal information
Train/develop your people
Provide technical support
Set realistic, agreed-upon goals
Give appropriate discretion
Ensure task variety and wholeness
High contact among all
One of the most subtle, yet effective ways to lead and empower people is to be a model of
successful, assertive behaviour from which others can learn. People feel empowered by
watching and then modelling the behaviour of others who perform successfully on the job.
Therefore, the third set of leadership skills we will discuss are the skills to empower
you so that you can act as a positive role-model for those around you. Quite frequently
people in organisational settings look upward for cues and norms regarding expected and
acceptable forms of behaviour. The following is an example of this process from the
author's work experiences.
'A few years ago we were installing a new computer system
where I worked. There were a few middle-level managers who were resisting the change. The
senior manager sent out an important message on the electronic mail system that these
resistors missed. They were chastised severely for missing the information and for not
using the system. Their behaviour very quickly changed. If the boss was using the system,
they realised they had better use it too.'
At first, you might think that this does not sound like a
very empowering situation. I thought leaders did not chastise people. However, compare it
to the situation in which the senior manager exercised his/her legitimate authority and
simply gave an order or established a new process or procedure. Would this have motivated
the resisting managers to actually use the system? If they eventually did come around to
use the system, how do you think they would feel about it? In the case above, the
resisting managers actually had the chance to see the value of using the system and to
understand that the "boss" was going to be using it, and therefore, I will be
expected to be using it as well. It was a simple case of leading by example. Stated more
positively, if you want your people to express themselves, to have fun, to work hard, or
to do what ever it is you think they need to be doing, one way to get them to do it is for
you to do it first, visibly, and frequently. This is one of the differences between
leading and managing.
Being a positive role model at work means we have to
stand up for ourselves, humanely and positively. When we let ourselves be known to others
we gain both self-respect and respect from other people. When we act powerfully, that is,
when we express our honest feelings and thoughts in direct and appropriate ways, everyone
involved usually benefits in the long run. However, when we sacrifice our integrity or
deny our personal thoughts and feelings, we detract from ourselves and our relationships
with others, that is, we all lose confidence. Our self-esteem and our relationships suffer
when we try to control others through hostility, intimidation or guilt.
Remember that becoming a more powerful, assertive
individual and role model does not guarantee that you will always get what you want. Nor
does it imply that leaders must become some sort of perfect, super-humans. These attitudes
and skills are not the solutions to all of your personal and organisational problems.
However, working towards becoming a more empowering and powerful person does have the
following potential benefits:
- It provides personal satisfaction because you are actively
attempting to influence and be effective in situations in which you are involved.
- It reinforces your self-confidence and self-worth.
- It increases your personal power and value to others.
- It provides you with more of an ability to choose for
yourself when and how you respond in a given situation, rather than being at the mercy of
old patterns, habits and unconscious reactions.
- It increases your willingness to accept the consequences
of your chosen actions because you are more likely to be operating from a place of
personal power and a sense of conviction and confidence.
There are many situations in which you, as a practising
manager, will find that assertive, straightforward, direct and positive communication will
improve your effectiveness as well as provide a model of effective leadership behaviour
for others. For example, being clear and assertive will result in greater effectiveness
during performance appraisal or goal setting interviews, during meetings, when delegating,
and when trying to close a deal.
Top of page
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Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New
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Stogdill, R. M. (1974).
Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research.
New York: Free Press.
Yammarino, F. J.,
Spangler, W. D. & Bass, B. M. (1993). Transformational
leadership and performance: A longitudinal investigation.
Leadership Quarterly, 4, 81 - 102.
A. (1974). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory
of behavioural change, Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1986).
Social foundations of thought and action: A social
cognitive view. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Holistic Management Pty. Ltd.